Monday, April 20, 2009

Talking Points #10 Power, Privilege, and Difference What Can We Do? By: Allan Johnson

Johnson argues that "removing what silences them and stands in their way can tap an enormous potential of energy for change." By this I believe he means that the oppressed need to be able to voice their struggles in their way that has an immediate impact on our society so that they may have an equal voice and privilege as straight white men.

1. "Just as privileged groups tend not to be aware of privilege, they also tend not to be aware of how it happens from one moment to the next. Developing that ongoing awareness is a key to becoming part of the solution."

I feel that this quotation contributes to Johnson's question of "What can we do?" As a straight white male, I receive privileges that others do not and I am not always aware of it. However, I am starting to gain awareness and I have practiced training my mind to think like Johnson and other authors we have read. In my last post, I took a picture of the current Rhode Island Senate which is all white people and mostly men. I feel I am training myself to notice these unfair and unbalanced things and by doing so, Johnson would agree I am becoming part of the solution. My contribution to the solution as a straight white male is self awareness. I need to continue to notice things that are unfair and unbalanced. The truth is that change can occur when oppressed peoples' points can get across to the rest of us. And it is also true that straight white men need to open their eyes and see the need for change in order for anything to happen because we are the ones who control the engine for change.

2. "Healing wounds is no more a solution to the oppression that causes the wounding than military hospitals are a solution to war. Healing is a necessary process, but it isn't enough."

My impression is that older people in the dominant group seem to think that now is the time to let the wounds heal and that our work is finally done. Women can finally vote and get jobs and Black people do not have any disadvantages anymore. They even have a Black President now. We are all equal. I really think that this is what older people in the dominant group believe. We have done so much research in this class that goes against this. In two of my older posts, I posted about the large percentage of Black people in jail compared to their smaller population percentage. I also posted about the insane suicide rate for gay people in today's world. This is unfair and unbalanced. The battle for equity is not over. We have been making remarkable progress, but, it is not time to sit back and let things heal. Today with a Black President who's motto is "Change We Can Believe In" strikes me as the best time to keep plugging and striving for change and equity in today's world. This is why I feel this is such an important quotation. I feel strongly that this is the view of many people and it honestly scares me. I believe their are still many objectives that need to be completed. For example, I really hope in my lifetime gays will have the right to marry. I think that the dominant group is putting their feet up on the desk and saying that they have done enough for people who are not in the dominant group lately.

3. "Make noise, be seen." "Find little ways to withdraw support from paths of least resistance and people's chice to follow them." "Dare to make people feel uncomfortable, beginning with yourself."

I like how Johnson offers these solutions to the problems we face in today's society. There are little contributions we can make in the fight for equity. In my opinion, any little thing done to help resolve this issue, no matter how small, is a step in the right direction. I find myself not laughing at at racist jokes and more importantly, not bringing them up when I feel I have a chance to. I have tried to pay attention to how I conduct myself in the presence of others and how my privilege effects me. I know it it is true that men feel more comfortable chiming into conversations when they are not called on and take up more space. I caught myself jumping into a discussion in my Statistics class starting with the word "And." Like anything else, practice makes perfect. The more I reflect on my actions and how they are influenced by my privilege, the better able I will be to "level the playing field" and take a step toward the solution.

I liked this article and how it offers solutions to today's complex social issues. I am just trying not to repeat myself in my reflections. I have written pages upon pages of reflections from authors we have studied and I feel like I am mentally exhausted from it. I am glad that I chose to put so much into figuring out all of our articles because these issues will all be prevalent wherever I go and now I have more tools in my toolbox to deal with them.

Another Christensen Argument Picture of RI Senate 2008-2009

I had a unique experience of being selected to be a part of a group called College Leadership RI. Last Friday we had our commencement in the State House. I noticed this picture on the wall, so, I took a snap shot with my cell phone. Even though it is a bit blurry, it is still possible to see all the white faces in the picture. Furthermore, the picture is predominantly men. By having this picture hanging up in the State House, it portrays who has the control influenced by the codes of power. The people in the picture do not equally reflect the population at large today. It reminded me of Christensen just because she would argue that people need to be trained to be able to pick out these sterotypical pictures. I picked it out and just wanted to post to my blog..

Monday, April 13, 2009

Talking Points #9 Citizenship in School: Reconceptualizing Down Syndrome By: Christopher Kliewer

Kliewer argues that we have to learn to get along as individuals and as citizens based on relationships built on mutual respect because all people have value. This is extended to anyone with disabilities because as a member of society, their presence is just as important as everyone else's.

1. "So what," she continued, "if you don't fit exactly what your supposed to? You know, it's not like I fit many people's idea of what a teacher's supposed to be like."

This reminded me a little bit about how our class is run. We are not evaluated by a midterm and final exam. I really like that this is the way our class is run. I fear the words midterm and final. In our class, we are graded on many different things. Mainly, we are graded on whether or not we make an honest attempt to read information and spend time to write our thoughts down in connection to other authors. I get a lot out of this class and it is not run like every other teacher. Most of my classmates agree that they like how we get to read and interpret readings and offer our thoughts on the subject. I feel like kids with disabilities should be judged this way too. It is still possible to tell if a kid with a disability actually tried on an assignment. That is the proper way to grade. In gym class, we were not graded on how well we played basketball and how many points we scored. That would be unfair to us. This is similar to grading students with disabilities on the quality of their output. The quality of students' effort should be the rubric for scoring.

2. "The more closely the ordering of words in a problem parallels the order of symbols in the equation, the easier the problem is to solve and the more students will like it. Seeing mathematics as a way of understanding the world, of illuminating a phenomenon, as a kind of conversation or enterprise into which even a young person can become meaningfully involved is a rare occurence. And yet, how can genuine understanding ever begin to come about with such an attitude?"

I have found this method of using steps and matching symbols is the easiest way to teach kids math. I have seen in textbooks not that next to each question it says "see page ..." and it gives students a step by step process to solving problems. This has always been the easiest way for me to learn math too. What separated me from most other students is that I would sit there and play with the problem and try all sorts of different methods to answering the same question. I love to explore issues and see them as multifaceted whenever possible so that I can grow as a learner. There is a down side to this method. I have seen students struggle so much with math when they have to really think about a question and it is not straight forward. This is why word problems are always seen as "the worst." It requires the learner to recognizes things out of their usual context. So, as Gardner argues, how can we have a genuine understanding of math when it is delivered to students in this step by step manner. They are losing out on all the connections between math and the real world when they see it on a worksheets without meaning. Furthermore, when they see these problems out of context they have so much trouble figuring out what to do. Gardner also proposes expaned ideas to learning in schools that more closely relate to the real world. I really like and agree with the need to include his seven ideas in the curriculum. For example, I really like number seven. If kids can be taught to deeply understand their self and their choices, we may be able to teach some students to stray from crime and other violent acts. It will give people a way to see just how much thier choices affect other people. This would be a good place to have a handicapped person talk about how other people's choices have affected him or her and will allow students to think deeply about how they make decisions in the future.

3. "Colleen Madison agreed with Shayne that no child was inherently an intellectual burden to a classroom; in fact, she argued, each student contributed a unique and potentially valuable dimension to the web of relationships that formed a school community."

This quotation from the reading really meant a lot to me that someone else feels the same way I do. School should first and foremost, teach its students about the people that make up the world and teach students that it is only when all different types of people are accepted and respected for the value they have that we can have peace and happiness in the world. I love that our class is diverse because I get to learn first hand from many different types of people. As long as we can respect and value the opinions of others, we can learn so much about who they are and their place in our community. Working together is very important and learning how to work and cooperate with a divers group of people makes the workplace so much more productive and easy. I just wish this quotation could serve as a common rule of thumb for all people so that we can learn not to judge others so quickly. There is so much to learn from people different than ourselves and if more people had that same view I feel like this world would be so much more fun for everyone.

I had a little bit of trouble finding Kliewer's voice in his article. There are so many examples about what other authors think that it is hard to see exactly where he stands. This article did remind me about Johnson alot. From a young age, I was always taught not to stare when I saw disabled people. This is a good rule of thumb for a young child. No one likes to be stared at. However, I am older now and as Johnson would argue, we need to practice "saying the words." I have been so used to ignoring disabled people by not staring that I have ignored talking about disabilites in general. I always have to think of the proper speech used and I have to be careful not to offend anyone. It is an uncomfortable feeling similar to the feeling to talking about orientation, race, and sex. As a straight white male, I have felt a lot of this discomfort in class because I feel guilty that I have so many "given" opportunities over others. I am not disabled and also feel a little guilt about that too. I talk to the "man in the wheelchair" who works in Donovan and I am always extra tense around him being careful not to talk about his handicapp. This is the same feeling of discomfort I get when talking about issues of race. I should be able to act normal with him because in all truth there is no reason for me to get so tense around him. Maybe one day I will work up the courage to act normal around him and maybe even one day talk about his handicapp and talk about how it affects his life today. practicing saying the words is the key to relieve that unnecessary tension.

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Diversity Blog Entry

I watched the Vagina Monologue play for my Diversity event. It was a very interesting play and was the actresses had a great performance. While watching, I jotted down some notes so that I could try to make connections to the authors we had already read, and the authors I would be reading in the future.
At the beginning of the play, a woman came to the front of the stage to talk about Vagina Monologues and gave us a preview for the show. Immediately after that, another woman came to the front of the stage to replace her and she spoke entirely in Spanish. This connects to Collier because Collier would agree that we need to provide for students' first language skills so that they can more easily learn English. So, by the woman speaking in Spanish to the audience, she is accepting the ESL who know Spanish. By doing this, Collier agrees these Spanish speakers in the audience will more easily understand English and may also understand the rest of the play better.

Another example I noticed from the play was a story about a young woman who was very attracted to her neighbor who was a stunning and beautiful professionally dressed older woman. She was very nervous about this because in our culture, this attraction of a woman to another woman is not accepted by most people. One night the older woman had the younger woman come by for dinner. The young woman's mother was fine with this and thought that it would be "harmless." They had a sexual experience that night. The point I am trying to make is that this was something that the young girl had to keep as a secret because it is frowned upon in our society. This is exactly what Carlson argues about gayness being marginalized. Gayness is "pushed to the margins" in our culture because in the center lies White, male, and heterosexual. This young girl is a product of our culture marginalizing gayness. Carlson argues for "normalizing" gay students so they do not feel this "closeted" and invisible feeling.

Throughout the play, I could not keep track of the number of times they said vagina. They had to say it at least two hundred times during the couple of hours I was there. The first time the audience heard it, everyone looked around and giggled. Vagina is a word that people barely ever use. Johnson would argue that we need to explicitly talk about issues like "saying the words" in our culture. There are too many words in our culture that we are afraid to say and Johnson argues that we need to practice saying those words so that we can have a world where people are treated respectfully and equitable. I always have to think about what I am supposed to say before I say it. This is especially true when I am talking about sexuality, gender, and race. There was even a part of the play where a girl did about twenty-one types of orgasms on stage. The play is an example of how much the media really controls us. There are so many ways in which the media teaches us how to think and act. That is why everything was such a shock and made the audience giggle. Everyone turned to their neighbor to see how they released their feeling of shock and discomfort. It did not bother anyone that they said vagina and faked orgasms on stage. The audience was just not used to seeing and hearing things like that in public because the media never allows that to occur. Johnson would agree that we can only talk about issues once we learn to say the words. If you cannot say the words, how can you talk about it?

Relating to Carlson's gayness issue:

"A Global Movement to End Violence Against Women and Girls"

Fear of the V Word

Monday, April 6, 2009

Talking Points #8 Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work by Jean Anyon

Anyon argues that, "Differing curricular, pedagogical, and pupil evaluation practices emphasize different cognitive and behavioral skills in each social setting and thus contribute to the development in the children of certain potential relationships to physical and symbolic capital, to authority, and to the process of work. The way teachers evaluate students from affluent backgrounds in classrooms compared to students who are from less fortunate backgrounds is a strong indicator of their placement in jobs because more fortunate students are taught how to succeed and less fortunate students are taught obedience.

1. "Don't cut it until I check it." vs. "Don't cut into your clay until you're satisfied with your design."

I found this strikingly similar to my experience in Roger Williams Middle School. The students have had a "project" that involves simple arithmetic in reducing each body part by one-fourth to create a "mini-me." They have to draw ovals for each body part on scrap paper and then cut out each part. The students who were actually participating in the project could not figure out how to do it. The teacher yelled at the students as loud as he could with step by step instructions and then said, "Don't cut it until I give you permission." This concept is important in showing the lack of freedom for working class students to explore. They are regulated unlike more fortunate students who are privileged and given the opportunity to work things out themselves.
I found another example in the article in how control is another issue that limits working class students and promotes more fortunate students. "While strict attention to the lesson at hand is required, the teachers make relatively little attempt to regulate the movement of children at other times." This privilege is allowed for fifth graders in an Executive Elite School but is not allowed at Roger Williams Middle School with seventh and eight graders. Students are extremely regulated here. They are not even allowed to carry back packs in the school. It disgusts me.
"Social studies projects, for example, are given with directions to "find information on your topic" and write it up. In my experience in Roger Williams Middle School, I found that my tutee had a similar boring project. He had to write a letter to James Madison as if he was someone who was meeting him at a congrrgation. The teacher wrote out simple directions with simple guidelines such as, "Ask James Madison questions like, How was your trip here? and How was the weather?" It barely involved any creative thought and examination. The teacher was very much in control of how creative the student could be with the letter, and at the same time, did not challenge the students as much as it could have.

2. "I want to make sure you understand what your doing-so you get it right." vs. "She discusses two-digit division with the children as a decision-making process. Presenting a new type of problem to them, she asks, "What's the first decision you'd make if presented with this kind of example?"

They are missing the elements of analyzing, questioning, and exploring. I found that this quotation relates to another quotaion in the article. "The products of work in this class are often written stories, editorials, or essays, or representations of ideas in mural, graph, or craft form." I remember many primary sources I read in middle school and then secondary sources about that same primary source. I was taught how to find biases and learned how to make decisions regarding what information I chose to accept and reject. It allowed me to make a decision in regards to what I was learning. I know I have benefited from learning in a decision-process manner. I have had the advantage of learning how to make educated decisions from going to an Affluent Professional school and today I am a young supervisor of a small group of college students. Students from working class schools are being trained to be workers and being eveluated on being right or wrong. In the work force, there are two ways to do a job: the right way, or the wrong way. If you do your job the right way, you get to keep working your working class job and if you do your job the wrong way, you have to find a new working class job. This is my impression of what message is being delivered to students. They need to learn other ways besides being graded right and wrong and learn how to explore their own thoughts and ideas just like important people in society have the privilege of doing today.

3. "By Thanksgiving, the children did not often speak in terms of right and wrong math problems but of whether they agreed with the answer that had been given.

This notion of being right or wrong compared to generally agreeing on something is part of the "hidden curriculm" mentioned in the article. This is an important point because for the executive elite school, they are getting a hidden training for the real world of executives. When important decisions are made, executives and high ranking officicials gather in meeting rooms until they generally agree on an answer. This is how all major problems are handled for politicians too. They vote and argue for and against on different bills and try to come with a majority to agree on something. Just getting it right would be part of the hidden training done in middle school. To go along with this, students are given plenty of training that teaches them to wrestle with difficult concepts and form their own educated and well-thought out opinion. For example, "Social studies also invokes almost daily presentation by the children of some event from the news." In my seventh grade classroom, we had to read the paper every Sunday and report on a world event. We had to put it in our own words, look up words we did not understand, and explain our interpretation to the class. There is training done for fortunate students like me that carry over to the real world.

I'm sure it was not hard for you to tell this was my favorite article. I am very much for equity for students in America. It is not fair that some students still get such an advantage over others in education. I was lucky enough to go to a very nice "college prep." school and I want to use that advantage to help teach less fortunate students the hidden curriculum and the codes of power so they can be successful in the world. I want to constantly work on a curriculm that accomodates all cultures and benefits all students who have the passion to learn.

Monday, March 30, 2009

Talking Points # 7 Anita Hill Is A Boy By: Peggy Orenstein

Orenstein argues for an education that is equal for male and female students and that represents them in a way that is not dominated by males. She also argues that people should "be the change they want to see in the world" and this is evident in that she rebels against popular methods of teaching and tries to teach Phase Five to students so that they learn the truth about history.

1. "Individually, teachers find that calling on students equitability, or simply waiting for a moment rather than recognizing the first child who raises his hand, encourages girls to participate more readily in class.

I heard all the time in High School how boys were good at Math and Science and that girls are good at English and Writing. Is it in guys genes to be better at Math and in girls genes to be better at Writing? Absolutely Not. I bet the whole stereotype began because for most of history, girls were not allowed to be educated. They were not allowed to study Math. In recent history, a common job for a woman is a secretary and this stereotype is still in place today. So, when boys and girls are asked a question about math in the classroom, the teacher is predisposed to look for the answers in boys because of the "common knowledge" that boys are supposed to be better at math. Teachers need to do a better of job of showing girls that they are perfectly capable of being good at math.
Later in the article I found similar examples. "By now, the list is all too familiar: the despised frilly dresses, the expectation that they will be tidy, the curtailed freedom in comparison to their brothers, the assumptions that they are emotionally fragile or bad at sports, the fear of being branded a slut. These are all assumptions about women that most teachers will bring into a classroom. If the teacher is not encouraging these stereotypes, the children will. They are all stereotypes that in our culture represent being weak. It is an example of who is the dominant culture in America. Why is there not much being done to fight this unequal balance? I feel that most white heterosexual men do not want to surrender dominance. It is very easy for us to ignore these issues because we are in the culture of power. However, these are issues that cannot be ignored because it is similar to "separate but equal."

2. "Even these girls, whose parents have placed them in this class in part because of Ms. Logan's sensitivity to gender issues, have already become used to taking up less space, to feeling less worthy of attention than boys.

The best way to describe this feeling is discomfort. I have felt a little uncomfortable in this FNED class with some of the readings. However, the more uncomfortable the reading makes me, the better. I have a hard time reading about women in class and I do not understand why. I feel like most of the things we read are about women's power and this may not even be true. Even though it makes me feel uncomfortable, I still read it. I want to be an educator. If I do not become a teacher, I will educate as a parent hopefully. These are issues in today's world and I need to stay open minded about it. I am used to reading and learning about men most of the time and women are used to learning about men too. In my high school, we students are used to "add women and stir" approach to gender equity." I bet some of the girls feel uncomfortable reading some of our female authors too. Studying such a wide range of issues in this class has been a bit overwhelming, but, I am reading everything I am supposed to and trying to keep an open mind and overcome misplaced feelings of discomfort. I am glad that these issues are really hitting me hard and that I can try to become a more well rounded teacher and learner.

3. "Of seventy-five surveys handed out to boys, only twelve were returned. Among those, the responses were often facetious, such as "I harassed her because she desrved it," or "because her butt's too big," or "because she has big tits."
"So what they're saying," Ms. Logan points out, "is that the responsibility for the harrassment rests with the female."

I feel that some guys will try to act tough around their friends when they fill out their surveys and do not really mean what they say. If my friends did this in front of me in high school, I probably would have just turned the other way because they would have made fun of me. When I was asked to fill out the survey, I honestly would not make comments like this just because my friends would try to pressure me to. Also, I've had debates in classes about sexual harrassment. Many people will say that when a girl wears a short skirt or skimpy clothing, she's asking for it. This is called Blaming the Victim. We are totally ignoring the fact that it is not the women's fault if a man takes advantage of her. Ignoring structural problems and in turn putting the blame on the individual is when you Blame the Victim.
The girls were also asked to take surveys. "The girls in these surveys are trying to be inconspicuous so they won't be harassed. They're trying not to be in the wrong place at the wrong time, trying not to dress a certain way. They learn to become silent, careful, not active or assertive in life. That's what the hidden curriculum teaches girls." This is an example that goes along with what Ms. Logan was talking about. This is another issue in today's world that needs to be addressed.

At first, as I mentioned earlier, I felt a little uncomfortable reading this article because it is all about women's power and I feel like that has been a constant theme throughout the semester. But then I really started to think about how almost everyone of my other classes focuses on men's power. It is okay that I feel this discomfort. Why wouldn't I? I've been brought up learning about important men for twenty years. I feel that this reading was the one that did it for me in acknowledging women's struggles.

Tuesday, March 24, 2009

Talking Points #6 "One more River to Cross" -- Recognizing the Real Injury in Brown By: Charles Lawrence

Lawrence argues that there will always be "one more river to cross" for Blacks in America because Blacks were labeled as an inferior race and that label has yet to be removed. He also argues The Brown v. Board of Education event should be judged on where it has left us.

1. "Woodward has called "Jim Crow" laws the "public symbols and constant reminders" of the inferior position of blacks."

I looked up Jim Crow laws on to get a better understanding of what Jim Crow laws were and how they relate to Lawrence.

"The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure segregation in all public facilities, with a "separate but equal" status for black Americans and members of other non-white racial groups.
Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms and restaurants for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated. These Jim Crow Laws were separate from the 1800-66 Black Codes, which had also restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964[1] and the Voting Rights Act of 1965."

So, these laws were a major player and had a huge resposibility in labeling Blacks as an inferior race when they labeled Blacks "separate but equal." Jim Crow laws that allowed segegated restrooms and restaurants were the public symbols and constant reminders of their inferior status. Even in the military, there was segregation. Because of these laws, everywhere one looked, there was segregation. By 1954, Brown v Board of Education declared school segregation unconstitutional. By 1964, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled. During the Supreme Courts rulings to end segregation, did they really think that this would "solve everything?" Even today there is always "One more river to cross." Today we have a Black president and there is still "One more river to cross" and we are working on how to cross it when we study Johnson's piece on "saying the words" and Holder's speech about talking more about race. According to Lawrence, we need to remove the label of inferiority to "solve everything."

2. "Once it is understood that the injury results from the existence of the label of inferiority, it becomes clear that the cure must involve the removal of that label. The mere placement of black and white children in the same school does not remove the brand imprinted by years of segragation."

According to Lawrence, the problem and cure is clear. The problem is the label and the cure is the removal of that label. Having a label of inferiority is a very dangerous thing. I learned in my Social Work classes about a concept about Blaming the Victim. Blaming the Victim helped me understand that once you have a label, you may have a target. Now when things go wrong, people have a group of people to take out any anger and frustration on. For example, long before the Holocaust, the Jews were labeled as inferior. This is an extreme case, but, it is similar in categorizing a group of people into being inferior and all the terrible things that can become of it. Also, when you have Jim Crow laws as constant reminders of segragation and the inferiority of Blacks, their label is constantly negatively reinforced with terrible and disgusting things. So, removal of this label needs to be a top priority. So, a quick fix solution of throwing a bunch of balck and white children together in schools is a step in the right direction, but a very small step because it does not really do anything. There are still years of tensions between these kids who hate each other and this act of desegregating schools is not going to change that.

3. "Instead of taking judicial cognizance of the fact that the maifest purpose of segregation was to designate blacks as inferior, holding such a purpose constitutionally impermissible, the Court chose to focus upon the effect of school segregation."

Lawrence is arguing that the Supreme Court is merely taking one thing away from the problem and that will still hold Blacks inferior. Why not take away the label that designates Blacks as inferior at this time? What is really the point in just desegregating schools if you still constitutionally hold that Blacks are inferior? I hear Lawrence's argument, but disagree. I think such an important case needed a step down process in order for it to be effective. I feel that if all of a sudden, schools were desgregated and Blacks had all the same rights as Whites, it may not have worked like it has worked. People need time for things to change and when you change one thing at a time over a period of time it holds better. I hear Lawrence in saying that "There is always one more river to cross." If we could fix the problem all at once, I'm sure it would have been fixed. And anyway, how exactly do you constitutionally take away someone's label? In an issue as complicated as this, there needs to be plenty of time to make such drastic changes.

This piece was difficult to read and comprehend compared to other readings. I feel like when we go over it in class things will shape up a little better. I felt like during his argument, I agreed and disagreed at different things he said. However, at the same time, I may not have understood his exact intentions when he wrote something and that may be why i disagreed with it. What I liked the most about this piece was how he argues about something to end racism. The label is what separates us and that is the real issue. He is arguing for an America where one day a white person may look at a Black person or vice versa and not see the label because we have been working to get rid of it for good.

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Talking Points #5 In the Service of What? The Politics of Service Learning By: Joseph Kahne and Joel Westheimer

The authors argue that it is "better to be explicit about the numerous and different visions that drive the creation and implementation of service learning activities in schools." When a service learning project is assigned, the assigner needs to explain to the assigned exactly what vision they have by this project being done to answer the question, "In the service of what?""

1. "Service learning makes students active participants in service projects that aim to respond to the needs of the community while furthering the academic goals of students."

This quotation is relevant to the text and the author's argument because it specifically explains the answer to the queston, "In the service of what?" In my service learning project, I am responding to the need of Providence schools with academic issues and working one on one with a student to improve his grades. After this it said, "Service learning can advance other priorities, such as the acquisition of vocational skills." This reminded me of my Habitat for Humanity trip where I went to Biloxi, MI to build a house for a week for a family who were victims of Hurricane Katrina. The trip taught me how important teamwork is and I learned many things about building a house. This was an obvious need in the community. Habitat for Humanity has explicit goals that they have in mind when sendind people on these trips. I knew exactly what I was working for and who I was serving. In fact, I even met the family that would be moving in. Because I knew exactly who I was serving, my teammates and I were able to have an even better attitude in building the house.

2. "After they returned, the students' perspectives of these elementary school children had changed. They were "surprised at the children's responsiveness and attentiveness," they found the children to be "extremely polite and surprisingly friendly," and they discovered that they "listened well and had excellent behavior." One student wrote, "Everyone at the school had good manners, and I think more highly of [the neighborhood] now."

When I told my parents I would be volunteering in Roger Williams Middle School on Thurbers Avenue for fifteen hours this semester, they had mixed feelings about it. They were just like the middle school parents in the article objecting to their children going into an elementary school in a "bad" neighborhood. From my experience in Roger Williams, I have found that the students there are not bad. They are regular middle school children who are finding themselves as they mature. This required service learning is helping to diminish the sense of "otherness." This word "otherness" is a key word that reinforces stereotypes within our community. For example, Roger Williams has a bad reputation when ranked against other middle schools in the state. However, these other middle schools outside of Providence probably do not have free or reduced lunch for over ninety-five percent of their students. Poverty is directly related to poorer grades in school. These facts are ignored during these rankings and when uneducated people look at the statistics and see Roger Williams at the bottom of the list, "fuel is added to the fire" in the stereotyping of Roger Williams of a "bad" school. I tutor a homeless student at Roger Williams. I do not remember any homeless students at my middle school, Mount Saint Charles Academy. So, before we go judging inner city schools, we need to remember they are kids and understand that where they come from directly influences their capabilities in school, and sometimes they cannot do anything about it.

3. "Time and energy given to such superficial betterment [Hannah gives as an example making Thanksgiving baskets for poor families] could much more efficiently be spent in getting at the basic inhibiting influences which perpetuate a scarcity economy in the midst of abundance."

This is an example of a bandaid on a broken arm. Who is to blame? "He [Bush] made no mention of changes that address the structural injustices that leave so many in need." Sometimes we spend time doing things like making Thanksgiving baskets and accept that there are people without food in our community. This is just like when Kozol talked about giving sleeping bags to the people in South Bronx and how it was a bandaid on a broken leg. They are not fixing the problem. They are accepting that those people are going to be cold, just like we accept that some people have no food. We can give them a meal, but that does not solve the problem. So, instead of giving them food every Thanksgiving, maybe all that time and energy could be spent on job training or in some cases, literacy skills.

I thought this article was pretty interesting. I am an advocate of making service learning part of the curriculum. However, I would agree with Mr. Johnson in that he let his students do community service projects of their choosing. There are certain things that I am curious about and really want to learn about. By being able to choose, I would be more enthusiastic about my project and definitely get more out of it. The authors presented a couple of case studies with different ideas of how service learning is presented. I would like to know what is the best way to introduce service learning to the classroom so that learning can take place.

Monday, March 2, 2009

Unlearning the Myths That Bind Us by: Linda Christensen

Christensen's argument is that very young children are being molded by a "secret language," which is basically the media, that teaches stereotyping of different cultures and genders. She also argues the importance of taking action to raise awareness and potentially create change.

1. "Consequently, most of the early information we receive about "others"-- people racially, religiously, or socioeconomically different from ourselves -- does not come as a result of firsthand experience. The secondhand information we receive has often been distorted, shaped by cultural stereotypes, and left incomplete...."

This shows how young children are attuned with "others" and immediately begin stereotyping them. An example from this article talked about a three year old who had already begun using information from Peter Pan to announce facts. Christensen is arguing that it is okay that a three year old is announcing facts from a movie. However, the movies should not be stereotypical in nature to begin with. Very young children should be initially exposed to a media that does not teach them to put people into categories like today's media does. As these children grow up and hear about others acting in a way that fits their specific category, it will reinforce the stereotypes in the children's minds. This is because it is much easier to store information in your mind when it already has somewhere to be stored. If these children hear something about others that does not fit their specific category, it contradicts what you thought was true and can be easily thrown out. It should not be like this. Something needs to be done about about the media so that one day this cycle of a pre determined image known to all about a specific culture will be eliminated.

2. "As they view each episide, they fill in a chart answering these questions. (For a ready to use copy of the chart visit

Christensen goes out of her way to include this note in her article. She is showing the importance of taking an action when a problem is presented. It shows that she is more than a talker, she is a "doer". This concept is very important in the world today and i feel like my generation is more doers than ever before.
I recently went to a "College Leadership RI" meeting where we had a tour of Crossroads RI and some young leaders came in to speak to us. One of the speakers was named Ray Harris and was one of the Providence Journal's top 10 (or 20) people to keep your eye on in RI. He is an executive director of a few groups that promote activities for teenagers in inner city schools and his topic of discussion for us was being a doer and not a talker. He used many examples about how his board has great ideas and that he knows if he does not do it, it will not get done. Because of his attitude, he is quickly as on the rise and his future is looking very bright. Christensen is doing her part in presenting easy ways for us, the readers, to take action if we want to. Later in the article she says, "But what am I teaching them if the lesson ends there! That it's enough to be critical without taking action?" I think she does a great job as a teacher to realize the importance of that part of the project.

3. "Women who aren't white begin to feel left out and ugly because they never get to play the princess."

I am a little confused about the second part of this quotation about ugly girls never being able to play the princess. In today's society, most ugly people marry ugly people just like good looking people marry good looking people. That is just the way it is. I learned in my Human Development class at RIC that the most successful relationships occur with people of the same socioeconomic status. I feel like even if an ugly man marries a gorgeous woman or an ugly woman marries a gorgeous man in a movie that it will not really matter because it is not the common case. I feel like it is not really something that works with her argument just because of the facts of the matter. As far as women who aren't white beginning to fell left out, I know the black singer Brandy played as a black cinderella. So, Christensen's ideas are definitely common because things are already being done about it today. There is a show today called Diego that Hispanic children will have an easier time relating to also. So, she definitely has a valid argument in that her issues on the media are being addressed and there has been action on it too.

I think Christensen does make good points, but, I do not really agree with the article. Some things need to be broken down to a very simple level for young viewers even if it means putting people into categories. I do not think that the media has shaped me as a young child to make me sterotype people. -- Christensen argued most people would say they are not shaped by the media-- I feel like most people quickly outgrow the Disney movies they saw as a young child and do not use that to group others. They are simply forms of entertainment. If family and teachers reinforce that stereotype in a child's mind, I do not believe it is Disney's fault, for example.
I do not see much of a connection to other authors other than how it relates to Johnson in that solutions and take action plans are embedded in the text. These two authors offer the readers ready to use solutions to begin using in their own life immediately.

Monday, February 23, 2009

Gayness, Multicultural Education, and Community By: Dennis Carlson

I believe Carlson's argument is to raise awareness in how America's public education system is still "normalizing" today's students, but at the same time, the system has made improvements. When she sums up her article, she says "We have a responsibility as public educators in a democratic society to engage them (students) in a dialogue in which all voices get heard or represented and in which gay students and teachers feel free to "come out" and find their own voices."

1. “Three techniques of normalization and (hence) marginalization have been of primary importance in this regard: (1) the erasure of gayness in the curriculum. (2) the “closeting” and “witch hunting” of gay teachers, and (3) verbal and physical intimidation of gay teachers and students.”

Two of my teachers were lesbians at my junior high school and I did not find out until other students in the class told me much later into eighth grade. As my friends told me, we laughed as if it was a big deal. If my friends did not tell me that my teacher was a lesbian, I never would have known. In fact, she was one of the best teachers I ever had and I still remember some of the ways in which she conducted her class. When she asked a student a question and the student said, “I don’t know,” she would work with that student no matter how stubborn that student was until that student gave an answer. My teachers knew that being open with their orientation at school was frowned upon and therefore, I never knew and they “closeted” their orientation. My school consisted of one thousand students and I only knew of one gay student. He felt tremendous discrimination and any guy that was friends with him was considered a loser. It especially shows the intimidation of students because I find it hard to believe only one in one thousand was gay. Gayness was definitely not in the curriculum at my school and I do not recall learning any of the history of gay people. I agree with Carlson in how the erasure of gayness in the curriculum encourages America’s students to see it as something that is abnormal.

2. “Willard Waller, in his 1932 classic The Sociology of Teaching, argued that homosexuals should not be allowed to teach for several reasons.”

I found this part of the article to be confusing. Why would Carlson bring up one person’s argument from the 1930’s? This was a long time ago and does not reflect today’s methods in regards to normalizing. I feel like Carlson is digging for an argument and is bringing up something from a long time ago to strengthen her case when I think it weakens it. For example, Attorney General Eric Holder is not going to talk about racism in the past as a means of showing how it is still portrayed today. Holder spoke about new things like how Americans simply do not talk to each other enough about race. I am not saying that Carlson believes this 1930’s view is the view of America today but she definitely uses that 1930’s view as part of her argument.

3. “For example, it is now estimated that up to one-third of all adolescent suicide victims are gay, approximately one quarter of all homeless youth in the United States are gay, and dropout and drug abuse rates among gay youth are likewise high (Gibson 1989).

This is very important because it shows how gays are not respected in society and are so hurt because of it that some give up on themselves and some give up on life. This is a staggering statistic and definitely needs more attention. It shows the extent to which American culture is normalized. Whenever a small portion of the population makes up a large portion of a depressing statistic, I believe it is because of injustice within a system. Why do over ninety five percent of students in Providence schools get free or reduced lunch? Why do African Americans make up such a large percentage of people in prison when they do not represent the same percentage of people in the population? These people are oppressed because they are not part of the culture of power and I hope Carlson is right when she says “the modernist idea of homogeneous, normalizing community is being more seriously disrupted than ever before.”

This article took me a long time to read because it is a scholarly article and I needed to look up many words. I hope we talk more in class about marginalization and normalization. Sometimes when you are immersed in a community where there are “normal” and “abnormal” views, you do not take time to seriously look at why some views are “abnormal” and address them. I never thought about how textbooks are normalized to disregard a whole gay community and never really took time to think about how intimated gay students are in coming out. It has always been so easy to “go with the flow” and not upset common views.
It relates to other texts that we have read like “Johnson” in which it talks about those with power and privilege. Carlson talks about markers of difference including class, gender, and race. She also talks about white, middle class, male, and heterosexual versus black, working class, female, and homosexual. Johnson talked about how mentioning you are homosexual before giving a speech will totally change how a crowd will receive you and that being heterosexual will not surface weird feelings. Where Johnson names homosexuals those without power, Carlson names them abnormal according to today’s society. They are both referring to the same problem and are trying to raise awareness on the issue and offer insight to solving it.

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

"Teaching Multilingual Children," Virginia Collier

Collier argues that teachers can properly teach multilingual students if they are careful in the manner in which they teach them and need to use the right tools from their "tool box." If the right tools are used, students will be eager to learn a new language and at the same time appreciate their very important home language and culture.

1. "People untrained in linguistics, particularly politicians, tend to believe that if limited English proficient students can converse with their monolingual English-speaking peers, then these English-language learners can compete with them on an equal footing. If it were only so easy! English-language learners who can chat comfortably in English do not automatically develop the academic language skills needed to compete."

During group activities in class, we are usually asked to find who the author is blaming. This definitely shows that at least part of the blame is being put on politicians. As I was reading this quotation, it reminded me of the article we just read by Kozol in which there were the quotations, "Why would you want to put so many people with small children in a place with so much sickness" and "The point is that they put a lot of things into our neighborhood that no one wants." Politicians are quick to be blamed for many problems in society. It is not possible for politicians to make everyone happy and that is why politicians have such a difficult job and are always under so much pressure. It is an easy solution to blame a politician, but maybe we should be trying to find other roots to the problem instead of pointing fingers.

2."Native like conversation proficiency generally takes students two or three years to master. It is not as intellectually as demanding as school or academic language."

This quotation captures what many students are doing in order to get by in the classroom and announcing that there is a difference between native language and academic language. Also included in this quotation was "This level of English proficiency in the U.S. context includes the ability to handle complex conversation (one might call it the ability to get along in the outside world) using contextual cues such as gestures and intonation from the other speakers, and situational cues to meaning." The reason why I liked these quotations is because I can relate it to an example in my life. It reminds me of a recent Domino's Pizza co-worker named Suilo. It reminds me of him because this quotation directly expresses how people can get by in the U.S. by being able to handle native like conversation proficiency but not academic language. Suilo, a Dominican, knows as much as he needs to about the English language know to work for Domino's and deliver pizza. He was able to have small conversations in the store and was able to pick up on gestures when dealing with customers. The only thing that Suilo had trouble with was answering the phone because it required a little more knowledge and understanding of the English language. By talking on the phone, it was impossible to pick up on gestures, and that was part of the reason he passed the phone onto me.
So, I think this quotation is important because I believe there are many people out there who are only proficient in native speaking because they have mastered that and are able to get by in America because of that. Some of these people may not have been challenged enough in school and had been allowed through the system not knowing enough academic English.

3. "Be aware that children use first language acquisition strategies for learning a second language."

I find this to be true in my life because I used English as a model when I learned Spanish in high school. The teachers know that we do this in order to learn, so, they set up the classroom in ways that show how it relates to English. Collier is presenting a model to all teachers of language that this is the number one thing to know when teaching students a second language. There is a great burden put on teachers of language because sometimes students will not be able to adapt and will become extremely frustrated. While this is happening, Collier still presents ways in which teachers can keep the students interested and eager to learn. These are key aspects in her article in which teachers and students learn together and from each other.

This was pretty tough to read and I found myself going back to re-read many sections. I found a few ways in which this article related to our class and the articles we have read. I observed a connection between Collier and Delpit when Collier says, "One must teach in two languages, affirm the cultural values of both home and school, teach standardized forms of the two languages but respect and affirm the multiple varieties and dialects represented among students in class, be a ... on and on." I think these "standardized forms" is something Delpit would agree with so that students can learn the codes of power to succeed in mainstream America. Furthermore, Delpit would agree that teachers should also encourage and adapt to students background, culture, and language styles. So, I see a similar argument between these two authors.
I found an example from this article that related to our classroom discussion of equal versus equitable. "On the false premise that English oral competence is all that an immigrant child needs to compete with native English speaking peers, too many ESL or other English-language learner programs fail to provide a literacy curriculum for their unique needs." Being equitable to these students would mean that these unique needs were acknowledged. Immigrant students usually speak their native language at home and are put at a serious disadvantage when placed in schools when children native to America have already had a head start at learning English at home.

Talking Points #1 completed on time... I just posted it to the wrong section of my blog

Talking Points #1 completed on time... I just posted it to the wrong section of my blog

Saturday, January 24, 2009

Pat Poirier

My name is Pat Poirier and I am a Socondary Ed. major here at RIC. When I am not in class I work in the Student Union. Besides that I love playing soccer and hanging out with my friends.